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BIOMASS GASIFIER MODEL

The Gasifier unit is essentially a chemical reactor, where several thermo-chemical processes such as pyrolysis, combustion, and reduction take place.

Most biomass materials like Wood, Charcoal, Straw, Grass and Rice Husk etc can be converted into a gaseous fuel known as producer gas, which comprises carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen. This gas has a lower calorific value (1000–1200 kcal/nm3) compared to natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, but can be burnt directly with high efficiency and good degree of control without emitting smoke. The producer gas flame temperature can be as high as 1100°C. Each kilogram of air-dry biomass (10% moisture content) yields about 2.5 nm3 of producer gas. In energy terms, the conversion efficiency of the gasification process is in the range of 80%–90%.

Downdraft

In this type, air is introduced into downward flowing packed bed or solid fuels and gas is drawn off at the bottom. A lower overall efficiency and difficulties in handling higher moisture is the limitations in downdraft gas producers. The time (5-10 minutes) needed to ignite and bring plant to working temperature with good gas quality is shorter than updraft gas producer.

Img:IllustrationThis gasifier is suitable for internal combustion engines after appropriate cleaning.

These gasifiers are best suited for applications where clean fuel gas is required and where temperature control is critical. These gasifier can be used in applications requiring moderate temperatures up to 600 °C.

Typical applications where the Down draft gasifiers have been successfully used are:

  • Continuous Baking ovens (Bread, Biscuits, Paint)
  • Batch type baking oven – rotary oven for bread
  • Dryers & Curing – tea, coffee, mosquito coil, paper drying
  • Boilers
  • Thermic fluid heaters
  • Annealing furnaces
  • Direct fired rotary kilns
  • Internal combustion Engines and CHP

Updraft Gasifier

Img:IllustrationAn updraft gasifier has clearly defined zones for partial combustion, reduction, and pyrolysis. Air is introduced at the bottom and act as countercurrent to fuel flow. The gas is drawn at higher location. The updraft gasifier achieves the highest efficiency as the hot gas passes through fuel bed and leaves the gasifier at low temperature. The sensible heat given by gas is used to preheat and dry fuel.

These gasifiers are best suited for applications where moderate amounts of dust in the fuel gas are acceptable and a higher flame temperature is required.

Typical applications where the updraft gasifiers have been successfully used are:

  • Packaged Boilers
  • Thermic Fluid heaters
  • All kinds of Fryers
  • Rotary type roasters
  • Aluminum Melting /Annealing Furnace

Universal Gasifiers

These gasifiers are based on entrained-flow principle and have the ability to convert a practically any biomass into high quality producer gas with negligible tars. The only limitation in this gasifier is the fuel size, which is to be limited to <2 mm. The universal gasifier is unique in its ability to gasify even poor fuels like soya Husk, Mustard stalk, sunflower husk, canola husk etc that contain high ash and have poor flow properties.

Img:IllustrationThe technology with its unique reactor design and the efficient dry-feeding system is based on more than 15 years of continuous product development.

Main features of Powdery Biomass Gasification Technology:

  • Feedstock flexibility: Suitable for almost all kind of Biomass (in powder form)
  • Incredibly Small footprint
  • High carbon conversion: > 98 %
  • Shorter start-up time
  • High availability and low maintenance
  • Tar free raw producer gas

The universal gasifier is best suited for applications that have medium to large thermal energy requirements, typically starting from 1 MWth (100 lph diesel equivalent)

These systems are custom made.

Gasifier Performance Range

Performance range Fuel consumption Power Generation
[kWe/h] [kg/hr] [kg/day] [t/year] [MWh/year]
80 96 2304 787 656
120 144 3456 1180 984
200 240 5760 1968 1640
400 480 11520 3936 3280
500 600 14400 4920 4100
800 960 23040 7872 6560
1000 1200 28800 9840 8200
1500 1800 43200 14760 12300
2000 2400 57600 19680 16400
2500 3000 72000 24600 20500
3000 3600 86400 29530 24600

Number of operation hours 8 200 [hrs/year]. With the biomass humidity of about 15 %.

Sailent features
  • Typical payback is within < 48 months
  • Fully Automated Gasification system & Burners
  • Very low maintenan- ce, No operative risk, easy to operate
  • Compact Foot Print
  • Multi Fuel systems
  • Dry Gas System
  • Zero Tar/ Effluent system
  • Highest Overall Efficiency
Img: illustration Biomas Gasification Technology - presentation in PDF

Zplyňování biomasy - gasifikace -brožůra v PDF